Foreign function interfaces (FFI) allow fast interop between languages. Unlike other approaches, like performing RPC calls between different components written in different languages, using the FFI allows for all manner of data to be shared between each language runtime, in the same address space. This reduces memory consumption and obviates marshalling costs. But when two garbaged-collected languages share references to the same values, each garbage collector (GC) needs to be careful to not collect these values while the other language has references to them. This is a problem we ran into when building both inline-r and inline-java. In this post, we’ll survey this very generic problem in all fast language interop, using Java interop as a case study.
Bonus: we’ll show you how linear types can help solve the problem safely.
The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) offers a foreign interface to manipulate Java objects, known as the Java Native Interface (JNI). This is a C interface, which we can readily bind in Haskell using inline-c or similar. This is what the jni package does.
The JNI is a low-level interface that is painful to use. No programmer
wants to invoke Java methods through the JNI using stringly typed
class names, method names and argument types. Doing so is very
error-prone and verbose. So we built higher-level abstractions on
top, jvm and inline-java, that run every method
invocation through the Java type checker as well as the Haskell type
checker. Think of
inline-java as a pretty good typo detector.
inline-java does even more than that. It checks that
Haskell types and Java types line up. It catches at compile time many
common bugs that could cause the program to crash or fail, but a few
- it is possible to use references to Java objects by mistake after they have been collected, and
- it is possible to accidentally retain large amounts of memory in the Java heap with references that live in the memory managed by Haskell.
Here’s a case study: the conversion of Java
Iterators to Haskell
Streams (as defined in the streaming package).
import Foreign.JNI import Language.Java as Java import Language.Java.Inline import Streaming iteratorToStream :: Reify a => J ('Iface "java.util.Iterator") -> IO (Stream (Of a) IO ()) iteratorToStream it = do return $ Streaming.untilRight $ do [Inline.java| $it.hasNext() |] >>= \case False -> return (Right ()) True -> do obj <- [Inline.java| $it.next() |] Left <$> Java.reify obj
See previous posts for an intro to
inline-java, but here’s the gist. The input to this function is any
Java object that conforms to the
java.util.Iterator interface. The
output is a
Stream yielding values of some type
a. The Java
objects are pulled from the iterator as the stream is consumed. The
Reify a states that we know how to convert Java objects
to Haskell values of type
a. We do this on the last line by calling
Like in Java,
obj above are actually references to
objects. But it’s a special type of reference provided by the JNI,
which can be used by foreign code (such as C or Haskell). These JNI
references need to be deleted explicitly once they are no longer
needed, otherwise JVM objects cannot be reclaimed by the JVM GC.
The above implementation of
iteratorToStream is not deleting the
references to Java objects. That’s a leak! Indeed, an object reference
acts as a root in the graph of all objects in the heap, as far as the
JVM garbage collector is concerned. Adding to the problem, the JVM
can’t deal very well with large and unknown amounts of references. The
JNI expects native calls to use only a few references and expects the
programmer to say in advance how many references will be needed.
Failing to do so affects performance and can lead to failures.
A straightforward fix to this situation is to delete the reference after the Haskell value has been obtained.
... bracket [Inline.java| $it.next() |] JNI.deleteLocalRef (\jNext -> Left <$> Java.reify jNext)
There are two problems with this approach:
- this puts the burden on the programmer to remember to delete the reference and to be careful not to use it afterwards (or risk a segfault). Moreover,
- JNI references are usually local, meaning that they are only valid on the thread that created them. So the programmer has to be careful to not share them with other threads.
Could we possibly ask the compiler to perform these checks?
One way to avoid needing these checks in the first place is to just let the Haskell GC delete Java references automatically when they become unreachable. We attach to each reference a finalizer that deletes it, which is going to be called by the Haskell GC. Such references are no longer local references, but global references. Unlike local references, a global reference can be used in any thread and it is not destroyed when control returns to Java. Since the JNI provides a facility to promote any local reference to a global one, couldn’t we just turn all local references into global ones and then have them be managed by the GC? A global reference is more expensive than a local one, so performance suffers. But it mostly works. Until you run out of memory…
A major problem with letting the GC run the show completely is that counter intuitively, sometimes memory might never be reclaimed, even when many objects are long dead. Suppose that the Java heap is crowded, the Garbage Collector of the JVM is desperate to kick some objects out of existence, and yet there is a good chunk of references from Haskell-land to the Java Heap. The Haskell portion of the application is already done with the references, but since there is plenty of space in the Haskell heap, the Haskell’s Garbage Collector is basking in the sun, with no pressure to run the finalizers that would delete the unused references.
Sometimes, the application is lucky and the Haskell GC runs the
finalizers just in time, which lets the Java GC clean
the Java heap. Unfortunately, sometimes, the Haskell GC won’t run and
the JVM will fail with an
Another solution is to define dynamic scopes. When a program’s control flow enters a scope, we open a new buffer. We keep track of all newly created references in the buffer, until the control flow leaves the scope, at which point we discard all recorded references all at once. In general, scopes are not allowed to overlap arbitrarily, but they can be nested.
the resourcet package
neatly encapsulates this idea. The JNI natively supports a similar
pushLocalFrame (n :: Int) creates a new scope in which at least
local references can be created. Exceeding the given capacity might
cause performance issues or errors.
popLocalFrame j copies the
j to the parent frame and deletes the current frame, which
causes all references of the frame to be deleted.
We are still running the risk of accidentally using a local reference after deletion, and to use it in threads where it is invalid. But programmers no longer need to remember to delete individual local references. Still, in practice we found difficult finding a hierarchy of nested scopes that keeps the counts of local references low. It is a problem that worsens with the size of the application. When building a complex server application that made many invocations to Java, we started with a scope per client request, and then a scope per test, and then we added scopes within the scopes when we were creating more local references than anticipated. Eventually, it did get very difficult for multiple teams of programmers of varying experience levels to be sure that the number of extant references stayed bounded for all possible code paths and inputs.
We would really prefer to delete a reference exactly when we know it to be no longer useful. In this way, memory becomes reclaimable by Java GC immediately. The problem is: it’s easy to forget doing so at all, leading to multiple leaks in an application. The key invariant we want checked by the compiler is that once we have a reference, it should be deleted exactly once, and never referred to after that. That is, we want to use references linearly.
What if we used the GHC proposal for linear types to treat our local references linearly? It would look something like this:
import Foreign.JNI import Language.Java as Java import Language.Java.Inline as Inline. import Streaming iteratorToStream :: Reify a => J ('Iface "java.util.Iterator" <> [Interp a]) ->. IOL (Stream (Of a) IOL ()) iteratorToStream itLocal = do return $ Streaming.untilRight $ do [Inline.java| $it.hasNext() |] >>= \case False -> return (Right ()) True -> do obj0 <- [Inline.java| $it.next() |] (obj1, Unrestricted a) <- Java.reify obj0 JNI.deleteLocalRef obj1 return a Java.reify :: J (Interp a) ->. IOL (J (Interp a), Unrestricted a) -- | A linear value of type `Unrestricted a` holds a value of -- type `a` which can be used non-linearly or unrestrictly. data Unrestricted a where Unrestricted :: a -> Unrestricted a
We are assuming that we have a restricted form of the
IOL, with the following operations.
return :: a ->. IOL a (>>=) :: IOL a ->. (a ->. IOL b) ->. IOL b liftIO :: IO a -> IOL a data IOL a where IOL :: IO a -> IOL a runIOL :: IOL (Unrestricted a) -> IO a runIOL (IOL io) = Unrestricted a <- bracket_ (JNI.pushLocalFrame capacity) (JNI.popLocalFrame JNI.jnull) io return a where capacity = ...
Compared to dynamic scopes, the major feature of
IOL is that
programmers can delete local references promptly, inside a single
global scope, when they are no longer needed. The programmer doesn’t
have to be concerned with guessing a scope hierarchy anymore.
IOL introduces local references as linear values. Operations that do
not delete the reference, like
reify, now have to return a copy of
it, and the operations that delete the value, like
produce no copy. This means both that references cannot be used after
they are deleted (since they can’t be used more than once), and that
the compiler will require them to be deleted eventually (they must be
used at least once). Finally, local references cannot be allowed to
escape the scope of
runIOL, as they become invalid before
returns. This is achieved by constraining its argument to yield an
Unrestricted a. Local references are released
promptly even if an exception arises, thanks to the
runIOL and the fact that there is no way to catch exceptions in
Admittedly, if exceptions need to be caught, it has to be done by the
runIOL. In our experience, many applications need
to catch exceptions in a few places only, so this is a modest price to
Each the local and global references we create via the JNI is effectively a GC root for the Java GC. The JNI was designed with the assumption that programmers ensure that very few such roots are in flight at any one time. The R native interface and others make similar assumptions. In this post, we discussed the tension that arises between releasing early and frequently, and doing so safely without increasing the risk of use-after-free bugs. With linear types, we can get both.
A competing approach that we haven’t discussed is the lightweight monadic regions of Kiselyov and Shan. This is an incarnation of dynamic scopes that, like linear types, have the type checker guarantee that resources aren’t used after released and that they aren’t used in other threads. However, they still demand from the programmer to not insert too many or too few scopes.
Some have suggested introducing affine types instead of linear types in Haskell. But for the particular use case discussed in this post, affine types would do no better than these monadic regions. That’s because affine types provide a weaker guarantee to the caller: we can return to the caller having used the argument at most once, but also never at all. We’d need nested scopes all over again to ensure that references do get disposed of in a timely fashion.
In our discussion of linear types, we brought streams to a linear monad without delving into the details of whether it is possible and how it would work. This will be the topic for a future post.