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8 September 2021 — by Tanya Bouman
Building a Go project using Bazel

In this post, I’ll show how to build a Go project with Bazel, using Gazelle to generate the build files. Why Bazel? With Bazel, I get incremental, reproducible, and cacheable builds. It’s designed for large, polyglot monorepos and can be extended to support more languages than the many already available. Why Gazelle? Gazelle looks at the Go source files and generates Bazel BUILD files for me.

I used tendermint as an example Go project, because it’s large enough to include several interesting problems:

  • protocol buffers
  • external dependencies
  • runtime dependencies
  • flaky and exclusive tests

How will we be able to tell when it’s finished? At the end, we’ll be able to build targets for all of the Go sources,

$ bazel build //...

run tests,

$ bazel test //...

and execute the tendermint binary.

$ bazel run //cmd/tendermint

To see the final results, check out my fork of tendermint.

Let’s get started!

But where should we start? As it is usual for Bazel, we start with the WORKSPACE file, which lives at the project root and describes it, and the BUILD files, which define packages within the project. The documentation for rules_go and Gazelle helpfully gives some code snippets for these. Starting with a fresh clone of tendermint, I create a WORKSPACE file that looks like this:

workspace(name = "com_github_tendermint_tendermint")

load("@bazel_tools//tools/build_defs/repo:http.bzl", "http_archive")

    name = "io_bazel_rules_go",
    sha256 = "8e968b5fcea1d2d64071872b12737bbb5514524ee5f0a4f54f5920266c261acb",
    url = "",

    name = "bazel_gazelle",
    sha256 = "62ca106be173579c0a167deb23358fdfe71ffa1e4cfdddf5582af26520f1c66f",
    url = "",

load("@io_bazel_rules_go//go:deps.bzl", "go_register_toolchains", "go_rules_dependencies")
load("@bazel_gazelle//:deps.bzl", "gazelle_dependencies")


go_register_toolchains(version = "1.16.5")


The first line of the WORKSPACE file gives the project a name, and the rest loads the dependencies on rules_go and Gazelle. Gazelle generates Bazel BUILD files, so that I don’t have to write them all myself, and updates the Bazel files after changes are done to Go source files.

Even though there aren’t any Go sources to build in the root directory, let’s write a BUILD file in the root directory. What is the point of that? The root BUILD file contains a Gazelle target, so that we can use Bazel to run Gazelle. The gazelle:prefix directive tells Gazelle how other Go projects can import this one.

load("@bazel_gazelle//:def.bzl", "gazelle")

# gazelle:prefix
gazelle(name = "gazelle")

Let’s try it out and see what happens.

$ bazel run //:gazelle

Wow, BUILD files everywhere! There is now one generated BUILD file in every folder which contains Go source files. And I’m really glad that I didn’t have to write those all myself.

Proto problems

What happens if we try building the targets in those BUILD files? Let’s find out.

$ bazel build //...
ERROR: /tendermint/third_party/proto/gogoproto/BUILD.bazel:5:14: no such package '@com_google_protobuf//': The repository '@com_google_protobuf' could not be resolved and referenced by '//third_party/proto/gogoproto:gogoproto_proto'
ERROR: /tendermint/third_party/proto/gogoproto/BUILD.bazel:5:14: every rule of type proto_library implicitly depends upon the target '@com_google_protobuf//:protoc', but this target could not be found because of: no such package '@com_google_protobuf//': The repository '@com_google_protobuf' could not be resolved
ERROR: Analysis of target '//third_party/proto/gogoproto:gogoproto_proto' failed; build aborted: Analysis failed

Uh oh, there’s a problem.

Here we’ve run into a dependency problem about using the proto_library rule for the protocol buffers in tendermint. Could I add that dependency and move on? Well yes, it can be done. However, according to the rules_go documentation, it’s probably easier to use the existing .pb.go files generated by the protocol buffer compiler, since tendermint already has those files. By default, Gazelle makes go_proto_library and proto_library to compile protos and generate .pb.go files. Instead of using that default, I include a Gazelle directive in the root BUILD file to disable the protos.

# gazelle:proto disable_global

I remove the generated BUILD files, generate new ones, and attempt to build everything again.

$ bazel run //:gazelle

Depending on the Outside World

$ bazel build //...
ERROR: /tendermint/internal/blockchain/v2/BUILD.bazel:3:11: no such package '@com_github_go_kit_kit//metrics/prometheus': The repository '@com_github_go_kit_kit' could not be resolved and referenced by '//internal/blockchain/v2:blockchain'
ERROR: Analysis of target '//internal/blockchain/v2:blockchain' failed; build aborted: Analysis failed

Oh no! What happened now?

To see why it’s failing, let’s take a look at the definition of the target //internal/blockchain/v2:blockchain in internal/blockchain/v2/BUILD.bazel.

    name = "blockchain",
    srcs = [
    importpath = "",
    visibility = ["//:__subpackages__"],
    deps = [

The target’s name is blockchain, and it builds a library from the Go sources listed. The import path tells us how another project can import it in Go, and the visibility says that only other targets within tendermint can depend on blockchain.

Finally, each dependency is explicitly listed. The dependencies that begin with // refer to packages within tendermint, and the rest are external dependencies. The error message points to one of those external dependencies: @com_github_go_kit_kit//metrics/prometheus. Why can’t Bazel find it? I haven’t given any definition of com_github_go_kit_kit, or any of the other external dependencies, so Bazel can’t figure out where to find it. Do I have to tell Bazel exactly where to find all of those dependencies? Bazel needs exact instructions about where to find external dependencies, but Gazelle’s update-repos command can use the go.mod file from the Go build to figure out the external dependencies, so I don’t have to write them all out myself. In the root BUILD file, I make another gazelle target, and this one uses the update-repos command.

    name = "gazelle-update-repos",
    args = [
    command = "update-repos",

And I run it the same way as the other gazelle target.

$ bazel run //:gazelle-update-repos

What exactly did update-repos do? There’s now a new file in the root of the project, called deps.bzl. Along with many other external dependencies, it gives a definition of com_github_go_kit_kit.

        name = "com_github_go_kit_kit",
        build_file_proto_mode = "disable_global",
        importpath = "",
        sum = "h1:dXFJfIHVvUcpSgDOV+Ne6t7jXri8Tfv2uOLHUZ2XNuo=",
        version = "v0.10.0",

How does Bazel know to look at deps.bzl? The update-repos command also adds a few lines in the WORKSPACE file.

load("//:deps.bzl", "go_dependencies")

# gazelle:repository_macro deps.bzl%go_dependencies

Note that the flag -build_file_proto_mode=disable_global sets the go_repository attribute build_file_proto_mode. This indicates that I don’t want to have proto_library and go_proto_library targets in my external dependencies either, and instead follow the recommendation to use pre-generated .pb.go files.

And, with all that, everything builds.

$ bazel build //...

One more quick note about the build: The current convention is that Gazelle generates names for go_library targets using the last component of the path. However, the convention used to be that all go_library targets were called go_default_library. When other projects depend on tendermint, they might use either of those conventions, so to accommodate both, we include another directive in the root BUILD file.

# gazelle:go_naming_convention import_alias

After running Gazelle again, there are now alias targets to the go_library target. For example the alias to //internal/blockchain/v2:blockchain is:

    name = "go_default_library",
    actual = ":blockchain",
    visibility = ["//:__subpackages__"],

It refers to the same blockchain library, but allows it to use another name.

Testing… Testing…

What next? On to the tests! Let’s run them all.

$ bazel test //... --test_output=errors

Finding Data

Most of them pass, but a few fail. Let’s look at one of them in particular.

$ bazel test //... --test_output=errors
==================== Test output for //state/indexer/sink/psql:psql_test:
--- FAIL: TestType (14.49s)
        	Error Trace:	psql_test.go:364
        	Error:      	Expected nil, but got: &fmt.wrapError{msg:"failed to read sql file from 'schema.sql': open schema.sql: no such file or directory", err:(*fs.PathError)(0xc0005f5f50)}
        	Test:       	TestType

The test needs the schema.sql file, but can’t find it. Why not? The file definitely exists in the folder along with the BUILD file and the Go sources. However, Bazel needs to know explicitly about dependencies, and Gazelle doesn’t know about these runtime dependencies, so we have to add them ourselves.

    name = "psql_test",
    srcs = ["psql_test.go"],
    data = ["schema.sql"],
    embed = [":psql"],
    deps = [

Since schema.sql is only necessary at runtime, we list it as a data dependency. Note that there is another type of dependency in this target: an embed dependency. Embedding is a specific type of dependency in rules_go which is usually used to include a library in a binary. In this case, it is a library embedded in a test target.

Now we can run the test again:

$ bazel test //state/indexer/sink/psql:psql_test --test_output=errors

And it passes! Onwards.

$ bazel test //... --test_output=errors
==================== Test output for //state/indexer:indexer_test:
--- FAIL: TestIndexerServiceIndexesBlocks (50.58s)
        	Error Trace:	indexer_service_test.go:184
        	Error:      	Expected nil, but got: &fmt.wrapError{msg:"failed to read sql file from './sink/psql/schema.sql': open ./sink/psql/schema.sql: no such file or directory", err:(*fs.PathError)(0xc0000aaea0)}
        	Test:       	TestIndexerServiceIndexesBlocks

Oh look! Here’s another test that also requires the same schema.sql file.

    data = ["schema.sql"],

It might be tempting to add the dependency exactly the same way as before, but that fails, because schema.sql is in a different package. Each BUILD file defines a different package, and state/indexer/sink/psql/BUILD.bazel defines the package that contains schema.sql. Instead, we need to explicitly mention the package name.

    data = ["//state/indexer/sink/psql:schema.sql"],

But that’s not all.

$ bazel test //... --test_output=errors
ERROR: /tendermint/state/indexer/BUILD.bazel:21:8: in go_test rule //state/indexer:indexer_test: target '//state/indexer/sink/psql:schema.sql' is not visible from target '//state/indexer:indexer_test'. Check the visibility declaration of the former target if you think the dependency is legitimate. To set the visibility of that source file target, use the exports_files() function
ERROR: Analysis of target '//state/indexer:indexer_test' failed; build aborted: Analysis of target '//state/indexer:indexer_test' failed

By default, files are only available to targets within the package. How can we change this default? An explicit declaration using exports_files in the package //state/indexer/sink/psql will do the trick.

    visibility = ["//state/indexer:__subpackages__"],

And finally, this test passes too.

$ bazel test //state/indexer:indexer_test --test_output=errors

Exclusive Tests

Let’s try something weird. Let’s add the flag --nocache_test_results so that Bazel doesn’t re-use the cached test results from before.

$ bazel test //... --test_output=errors --nocache_test_results
==================== Test output for //state/indexer/sink/psql:psql_test:
--- FAIL: TestType (114.24s)
        	Error Trace:	psql_test.go:365
        	Error:      	Expected nil, but got: &fmt.wrapError{msg:"Error unlocking while returning from other err: Migration '2021-07-09 20:30:37.648524208 +0000 UTC db schema' Failed:\ndriver: bad connection\nread tcp> read: connection reset by peer", err:(*fmt.wrapError)(0xc000527cc0)}
        	Test:       	TestType

Yuck! What is this? Wasn’t this test passing before? It’s a network error, and it turns out that this test does pass when run by itself, and passes over and over again, even with --nocache_test_results.

$ bazel test //state/indexer/sink/psql:psql_test --test_output=errors --nocache_test_results

Running the test separately is really annoying, but is necessary to guarantee that the network connections are available. Is there a better way to do it? Yes, there’s an attribute tags = ["exclusive"], that ensures no other tests run in parallel with it. Is there any way that those tests could run in parallel? Yes, it is possible to change the tests, but that goes beyond building with Bazel, so I work around the issue by not running them in parallel.

Flaky Tests

After running all of those tests so many times, I notice something strange. What is it? The test //light:light_test sometimes fails and sometimes passes. In fact, this test was known to be flaky. Is there anything we can do about it? Testing rules have a flaky attribute, and adding flaky = True tells Bazel to run the test up to three times before failing it.

Are all the tests passing now? There are a few failing tests left, but these also fail on my machine with go test, so it’s not a Bazel-specific issue. To prevent those tests from running with bazel test //..., I add tags = ["manual"] to those test targets.

Are we done yet?

The final thing that we’ll check in this post is the main tendermint binary.

$ bazel run //cmd/tendermint

And it runs, printing out help for using tendermint.

Yes! It’s finished

Now I have a Bazel build of tendermint, and I can run tests and the tendermint command. For more examples of using Bazel, check out posts which build projects with Haskell and OCaml.

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
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