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12 May 2022 — by Arnaud Spiwack
Comparing strict and lazy

This blog post covers essentially the same material as the talk I gave at Haskell Exchange 2020 (time truly flies). If you prefer watching it in a talk format, you can watch the recording. Or you can browse the slides.

I first conceived of writing (well, talking, initially) on this subject after one too many person told me “lazy is better than strict because it composes”. You see, this is a sentence that simply doesn’t make much sense to me, but it is oft repeated.

Before we get started, let me make quite specific what we are going to discuss: we are comparing programming languages, and whether by default their function calls are lazy or strict. Strict languages can (and do) have lazy data structures and lazy languages can have strict data structures (though it’s a little bit harder, in GHC, for instance, full support has only recently been released).

In the 15 years that I’ve been programming professionally, the languages in which I’ve written the most have been Haskell and Ocaml. These two languages are similar enough, but Haskell is lazy and Ocaml is strict. I’ll preface my comparison by saying that, in my experience, when switching between Ocaml and Haskell, I almost never think about laziness or strictness. It comes up sometimes. But it’s far from being a central consideration. I’m pointing this out to highlight that lazy versus strict is really not that important; it’s not something that’s worth the very strong opinions that you can see sometimes.


With these caveats established, I’d like to put to rest the statement that laziness composes better. Consider the following piece of Haskell

atomicPut :: Handle -> String -> IO ()
atomicPut h line =
  withMVar lock $ \_ -> do
    hPutStrLn h line

This looks innocuous enough: it uses a lock to ensure that the line argument is printed without being interleaved with another call to atomicPut. It also has a severe bug. Don’t beat yourself up if you don’t see why: it’s pretty subtle; and this bit of code existed in a well-used logging library for years (until it broke production on a project I was working on and I pushed a fix). The problem, here, is that line is lazy, hence can contain an arbitrary amount of computation, which is subsequently run by hPutStrLn. Running arbitrary amounts of computation within a locked section is very bad.

The fix, by the way, is to fully evaluate the line before entering the lock

atomicPut :: Handle -> String -> IO ()
atomicPut h line = do
  evaluate $ force line
  withMVar lock $ \_ -> do
    hPutStrLn h line

It goes to show, though, that laziness doesn’t compose with locks. You have to be quite careful too: for each variable used within the locked section, you need to evaluate it at least as much as the locked code will before entering the lock.

Shortcutting fold

When people claim that lazy languages compose better, what they think about is something like this definition

or :: [Bool] -> Bool
or =  foldr (||) False

This is truly very clever: because this implementation will stop traversing the list as soon as it finds a True element. To see why, let’s look at the definition of foldr

foldr            :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b
foldr _ z []     =  z
foldr f z (x:xs) =  f x (foldr f z xs)

When we call foldr recursively, we do that as an argument to f, but since f is lazy, the recursive call is not evaluated until f itself asks for the evaluation. In or, f is (||), which doesn’t evaluate its second argument when the first is True, so the recursive call never happens in this case.

It’s absolutely possible to do the same thing in a strict language. But it requires quite a bit more setup:

(* val fold_right_lazily : ('a -> 'b Lazy.t -> 'b Lazy.t) -> 'a List.t -> 'b Lazy.t -> 'b Lazy.t *)
let rec fold_right_lazily f l accu =
  match l with
  | [] -> accu
  | a::l' -> f a (lazy (Lazy.force (fold_right_lazily f l' accu)))

(* val or_ : bool List.t -> bool *)
let or_ l = Lazy.force (fold_right_lazily (fun x y -> x || (Lazy.force y)) l (Lazy.from_val false))

But, honestly, it’s not really worth it. GHC takes a lot of care to optimise lazy evaluation, since it’s so central in its evaluation model. But Ocaml doesn’t give so much attention to lazy values. So fold_right_lazily wouldn’t be too efficient. In practice, Ocaml programmers will rather define or manually

(* val or_ : bool List.t -> bool *)
let rec or_ = function
  | [] -> false
  | b::l -> b || (or_ l) (* || is special syntax which is lazy in the
                           second argument*)

Applicative functors

Another, probably lesser known, way in which laziness shines is applicative functors. At its core, an applicative functor, is a data structure which supports zipWith<N> (or map<N> in Ocaml) for all N. For instance, for lists:

zipWith0 :: a -> [a]
zipWith1 :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
zipWith2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c]
zipWith3 :: (a -> b -> c -> d) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d]
zipWith4 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e]
zipWith5 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f]

Of course, that’s infinitely many functions, and we can’t define them all. Though probably, it’s enough to define 32 of them, but even that would be incredibly tedious. The applicative functor abstraction very cleverly finds a way to summarise all these functions as just three functions:

pure :: a -> [a]
(<$>) :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
(<*>) :: [a -> b] -> [a] -> [b]

(in Haskell, this would be the Applicative instance of the ZipList type, but let’s not be distracted by that)

Then, zipWith5 is derived simply as:

zipWith5 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f]
zipWith5 f as bs cs ds es = f <$> as <*> bs <*> cs <*> ds <*> es

The definition is so simple that you never need to define zipWith5 at all: you just use the definition inline. But there’s a catch: were you to use this definition on a strict data structure, the performance would be abysmal. Indeed, this zipWith5 would allocate 5 lists: each call to (<*>) allocates an intermediate list. But a manual implementation of zipWith5 requires a single list to be allocated. This is very wasteful.

For lazy list it’s alright: you do allocate all 5 lists as well, but in a very different pattern. You first allocate the first cons cell of each of the 5 lists, and discard all 4 intermediate results. Then you allocate the second cons cell of each list, etc… This means that at any point in time, the memory overhead is constant. This is the sort of load that a garbage collector handles very very well.

Now, this is really about lazy data structures versus strict data structures, which I said at the beginning that I wouldn’t discuss. But I think that there is something here: in a strict language, you will usually be handling strict data structures. If you want them to support an efficient applicative interface, you will need a lazy copy of the same data structure. This is a non-trivial amount of extra code. I imagine it could be mitigated by the language letting you derive this lazy variant of your data structure. But I don’t think any language does this yet.

Matching lazy data is weird

That being said, lazy languages come with their lot of mind-boggling behaviour. Pattern-matching can be surprisingly counter-intuitive.

Consider the following

f :: Bool -> Bool -> Int
f _    False = 1
f True False = 2
f _    _     = 3

This second clause may seem completely redundant: after all anything matched by the second clause is already matched by the first. However it isn’t: it forces the evaluation of the first argument. So the mere presence of this clause changes the behaviour of f (it makes it that f undefined False = undefined). But f can never return 2.

This and more examples can be found in Simon Peyton Jones’s keynote talk at Haskell Exchange 2019 Revisiting Pattern Match Overlap Checks as well as in an older paper GADTs meet their match, by Karachalias, Schrijvers, Vytiniotis, and Peyton Jones.


Consider the following implementation of list length:

length :: [a] -> Integer
length [] = 0
length (_:as) = 1 + length as

It’s not a good implementation: it will take O(n)O(n) stack space, which for big lists, will cause a stack overflow, even though length really only require O(1)O(1) space. It’s worth noting that we are consuming stack space, here, because (+) is strict. Otherwise, we could have been in a case like the or function from earlier, where the recursive call was guarded by the lazy argument and didn’t use space.

For such a strict recursion, the solution is well-known: change the length function to be tail recursive with the help of an accumulator:

length :: [a] -> Integer
length = go 0
    go :: Integer -> [a] -> Integer
    go acc [] = acc
    go acc (_:as) = go (acc+1) as

This transformation is well-understood, straightforward, and also incorrect. Because while it is true that we are no longer using stack space, we have traded it for just as much heap space. Why? Well, while (+) is strict, Integer is still a lazy type: a value of type Integer is a thunk. During our recursion we never evaluate the accumulator; so what we are really doing is creating a sort of copy of the list in the form of thunks which want to evaluate acc + 1.

This is a common trap of laziness (see also this blog post by Neil Mitchell). It’s much the same as why you typically want to use foldl' instead of foldl in Haskell. The solution is to evaluate intermediate results before making recursive calls, for instance with bang patterns1:

length :: [a] -> Integer
length = go 0
    go :: Integer -> [a] -> Integer
    go !acc [] = acc
    go !acc (_:as) = go (acc+1) as

This is an instance of a bigger problem: it’s often very difficult to reason about memory in lazy languages. The question “do these few lines of code leak memory” sometimes provokes very heated discussions among seasoned Haskell programmers.

On a personal note I once fixed a pretty bad memory leak. The fix was pushed in production. When I came back to work the next day, the memory leak was still there. What had happened is that there were actually two memory leaks, one was caused by laziness: my reproducer forced the guilty thunks, so masked that second leak. I only fixed one. I got burnt by the fact that the memory usage of applications with a lot of laziness changes when you observe them.

Lazy deserialisation

The flip side, though, is that if you don’t need a whole data structure, you won’t allocate the unnecessary parts without having to think about it. Where this shines the brightest, in my opinion, is in lazy deserialisation.

The scenario is you get (from disk, from the network,…) a datastructure in the form of a serialised byte-string. And you convert it to a linked data structure for manipulation within your application. If the data structure is lazy, you can arrange it so that forcing part of the data structure performs the relevant deserialisation (for instance Json can be deserialised lazily).

This is very nice because linked data structures weigh strongly on the garbage collector which needs to traverse them again and again, while byte-strings are essentially free.

In this scenario you can, guilt-free, convert your byte-string to a value of your data structure. And deserialisation will happen implicitly on demand.

This can be done in a strict language with a lazy data structure, but this requires more care and more boilerplate, so it can get in the way sometimes.


Comparing laziness and strictness, it’s difficult to find a clear winner. I could have given more points of comparisons (in fact, there are a few more in my talk), but the pattern continues. Of course, among the different advantages and disadvantages of laziness and strictness, there may be some which count more for you. This could make you take a side. But others will want to make a different trade-off.

From where I stand, laziness is not a defining feature of Haskell. In fact, Purescript, which is undeniably a Haskell dialect, is a strict language. Things like type classes, higher-order type quantification, and purity are much more relevant in distinguishing Haskell from the rest of the ML family of languages.

In my opinion, the main role that laziness has played for Haskell is making sure that it stays a pure language. At the time, we didn’t really know how to make pure languages, and a strict language would have likely eventually just added effects. You simply can’t do that with a lazy language, so Haskell was forced to be creative. But this is a thing of the past: we now know how to make pure languages (thanks to Haskell!), we don’t really need laziness anymore.

I honestly think that, nowadays, laziness is a hindrance. Whether you prefer laziness or strictness, I find it difficult to argue that the benefits of laziness are large enough to justify Haskell being the only lazy language out there. So much of the standard tooling assumes strictness (it’s a legitimate question to ask what it would mean to step through a Haskell program with gdb, but there is no doubt about what it means for Ocaml). So if you’re making a new language, I think that you should make it strict.

  1. As it happens, the faulty implementation of length can be found in base. It’s not exposed to the user but it’s used internally. It’s saved by the fact that it uses Int rather than Integer, and the strictness analysis automatically makes the go function strict. I honestly have no idea whether the author was conscious of the fact that they were leveraging the strictness analysis this way, or whether it’s another piece of evidence that it’s very easy to get wrong.

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