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15 November 2022 — by Thomas Bagrel
Staged programming with typeclasses

Staged programming consists of evaluating parts of a program at compile time for greater efficiency at runtime, as some computations would have already been executed or made more efficient during compilation. The poster child for staged programming is the exponential function: to compute a^b, if b is known at compile time, a^b can be replaced by b explicit multiplications. Staged programming allows you to write a^5, but have the expression compile to a*a*a*a*a.

In Haskell, the traditional way to do staged programming is to reach for Template Haskell. Template Haskell is, after all, designed for this purpose and gives you strong guarantees that the produced code is indeed a*a*a*a*a, as desired. On the other hand it does feel a little heavyweight and programmers, in practice, tend to avoid exposing Template Haskell in their interfaces.

In this blog post, I want to present another way to do staged programming that is more lightweight, and feels more like a native Haskell solution, but, in exchange, offers fewer guarantees. At its core, what is needed for staged programming is to distinguish between what is statically known and what is dynamically known. In Template Haskell, static and dynamic information is classified by whether an expression is within a quotation or not. But there is another way to signal statically-known information in Haskell: types.

This is what we are going to do in this blog post: passing statically-known arguments at the type level. I’ve used this technique in linear-base.

Natural numbers at the type level

Haskell offers a native kind Nat of type-level natural numbers. We could pass the (statically known) exponent as Nat, in fact we eventually will, but it is difficult to consume numbers of kind Nat because GHC doesn’t know enough about them (for instance, GHC doesn’t know that n+1 is equivalent to 1+n).

Instead, we will use an inductive encoding of the natural numbers: the Peano encoding.

data Peano
  = Z         -- zero
  | S Peano   -- successor of another peano number

In this encoding, 3 is written S (S (S Z)).

Normally, Peano would live at the type level, and both Z and S would live at the term level (they’re data constructors after all). But thanks to the DataKinds extension – which allows data constructors to be promoted to types – we can also use Peano as the kind of type-level Z and S.

Now let’s return to the power function. We will first create a typeclass RecurseOnPeano, that will contain the power function (and that could host any other recursive metaprogramming function that operates on Peanos):

class RecurseOnPeano (n :: Peano) where
  power :: Int -> Int

The power function only needs one term-level parameter: the number that will be multiplied by itself n times. Indeed, the exponent is already “supplied” as a type-level parameter n. In fact, the signature of the power function outside the typeclass would be:

power :: forall (n :: Peano). RecurseOnPeano n => Int -> Int

At a call site, the type-level parameter n will be supplied to the function through a type application, using the dedicated @ symbol (e.g. power @(S (S Z)) 4). It isn’t possible to omit the type parameter n at a call site because there is no way for GHC to deduce it from the type of a term-level parameter of the function. So we need to enable the AllowAmbiguousTypes extension.

The implementation of the power function will be defined through two instances of the RecurseOnPeano typeclass – one for the base case (n = Z), and one for the recursive case (n = S n') – as one would do in a term-level recursive function.

The first instance is relatively straightforward as x^0 = 1 for every positive integer x:

instance RecurseOnPeano Z where
  power _ = 1

For the second instance we want to write power @(S n) x = x * power @n x. But to use power @n x, n needs to fulfill the RecurseOnPeano constraint too. In the end, that yields:

instance RecurseOnPeano n => RecurseOnPeano (S n) where
  power x = x * power @n x

We now have a first working example:

-- <<<<<<<<<<<<< file CompileRecurse.hs >>>>>>>>>>>>>

{-# LANGUAGE KindSignatures #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeApplications #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds #-}
{-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables  #-}
{-# LANGUAGE AllowAmbiguousTypes #-}
module CompileRecurse where
import GHC.TypeLits

data Peano = Z | S Peano

class RecurseOnPeano (n :: Peano) where
  power :: Int -> Int

instance RecurseOnPeano Z where
  power _ = 1
  {-# INLINE power #-}
instance RecurseOnPeano n => RecurseOnPeano (S n) where
  power x = x * power @n x
  {-# INLINE power #-}

-- <<<<<<<<<<<<< file Main.hs >>>>>>>>>>>>>

{-# LANGUAGE TypeApplications #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds #-}
module Main where
import CompileRecurse

main :: IO ()
main = print $ power @(S (S (S Z))) 2  -- this should print 8

Many languages extensions are required for this example to work:

  • KindSignatures permits the syntax (n :: Peano) to restrict the RecurseOnPeano class to types of the Peano kind.
  • TypeApplications gives the @type syntax to supply type-level parameters.
  • DataKinds allows us to promote the Peano data type to the kind level.
  • ScopedTypeVariables is needed to be able to refer to n in the body of power in the second instance of RecurseOnPeano.
  • AllowAmbiguousTypes is needed when we declare a typeclass function in which the term-level parameters (if there are any) are not sufficient to infer the type-level parameters (and thus require an explicit type application at the call site).

I also added {-# INLINE #-} pragmas on the power implementations, because we indeed want GHC to inline these to achieve our initial goal. For such a simple example, GHC would inline them by default, but it’s better to be explicit about our intent here.

You can now validate that the power @(S (S (S Z))) 2 encoding for 2^3 indeed prints 8 on the terminal.

From Peano type-level integers to GHC Nats

Writing S (S (S Z)) is not very convenient. We would definitely prefer to write 3 instead. And that is possible, if we allow a bit more complexity in our code.

Number literals, such as 3, when used at the type level are of kind Nat from GHC.TypeLits.

Unfortunately, if we completely replace our home-made Peanos with GHC Nats, we will run into some issues of overlapping instances in the RecurseOnPeano typeclass.1

A solution can be found by using the {-# OVERLAPPING #-} and {-# OVERLAPPABLE #-} pragmas, but it is quite fragile: instance selection is no longer driven by types or structure but rather by a manual override. And the rules for such an override are rather complex, especially when more than two instances are involved; in the case at hand, we might want to add a third instance with a specific implementation for n = 1.

Instead, we will add a type family (that is, a function from types to types) to convert from Nats to Peanos, and add an auxiliary function power' that will take a type-level Nat instead of a type-level Peano:

-- <<<<<<<<<<<<< add to file CompileRecurse.hs >>>>>>>>>>>>>

{-# LANGUAGE TypeOperators #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies #-}
{-# LANGUAGE UndecidableInstances #-}
{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleContexts #-}

type family NatToPeano n where
  NatToPeano 0 = Z
  NatToPeano n = S (NatToPeano (n - 1))

-- 'RecurseOnPeano (NatToPeano n) =>' means that the ¨Peano equivalent of n
-- must be an instance of RecurseOnPeano to get access to 'power'
power' :: forall (n :: Nat). (RecurseOnPeano (NatToPeano n)) => Int -> Int
power' = power @(NatToPeano n)

-- <<<<<<<<<<<<< change in file Main.hs >>>>>>>>>>>>>

main = print $ power' @3 2  -- this should still print 8

Our function is still working as expected, and is now more convenient to use!

A look under the hood

Our initial goal was to unroll the power' function at compile time. Let’s check whether this promise holds.

We will create a new test file test/CompileRecurseTests.hs and set specific GHC options so that we can take a look at the generated Core2 code for our project:

{-# OPTIONS_GHC -O -ddump-simpl -dsuppress-all -dsuppress-uniques -ddump-to-file #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeApplications #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds #-}
module Main where

import CompileRecurse

myFunc :: Int -> Int
myFunc x = power' @3 x + 1

main :: IO ()
main = return ()

The following GHC flags are used:

  • -O enables optimizations in GHC.
  • -ddump-simpl requests the Core code after the output of the simplifier.
  • -dsuppress-all and -dsuppress-uniques reduce the verbosity of the output (otherwise, searching for a specific piece of code would become very tedious).
  • Finally, -ddump-to-file asks for the output to be written to a file in the build directory.

With the above options, compiling and running the test suite creates a file CompileRecurseTests.dump-simpl deep down in the build tree.3 If we ignore all the lines about $trModule, we get:

-- RHS size: {terms: 12, types: 3, coercions: 0, joins: 0/0}
  = \ x -> case x of { I# x1 -> I# (+# (*# x1 (*# x1 x1)) 1#) }

I# is the “boxing” constructor for integers, that is, the one taking an unboxed integer (Int#) and creating a Haskell Int (an integer behind a pointer). +# and *# are the equivalent of arithmetic functions + and * for unboxed integers Int#.

We can see that myFunc

  • takes an Int,
  • unboxes its value,
  • makes the 2 product operations corresponding to the inlined power' @3 x,
  • adds 1, and finally,
  • boxes the result once again to produce an Int.

There is no mention of power' here, so the function has been successfully inlined!

Inspection testing

Checking manually whether or not the inlining has happened – by looking through the .dump-simpl file after every change – is really impractical. Instead, it is possible to use the inspection-testing and tasty-inspection-testing libraries to automate such a process.

To do this, we simply need to introduce a function myFunc' – corresponding to what we expect to be the optimized and inlined form of myFunc – and then we check that both myFunc and myFunc' result in the same generated Core code by using the specific === comparison operator (and a little bit of Template Haskell too):

{-# OPTIONS_GHC -O -dno-suppress-type-signatures -fplugin=Test.Tasty.Inspection.Plugin #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeApplications #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell #-}

module Main where

import Test.Tasty
import Test.Tasty.Inspection
import CompileRecurse

myFunc :: Int -> Int
myFunc x = power' @3 x + 1

myFunc' :: Int -> Int
myFunc' x = x * (x * x) + 1

main :: IO ()
main = defaultMain . testGroup "Inspection testing of power'" $
  [ $(inspectTest $ 'myFunc === 'myFunc') ]

Running the test suite gives:

Inspection testing of power'
  myFunc === myFunc': OK

All 1 tests passed (0.01s)

If both functions didn’t result in the same generated Core code – e.g. if we wrote (x * x) * x + 1 instead of x * (x * x) + 1 in myFunc' – we would get:

Inspection testing of power'
  myFunc === myFunc': FAIL
        [ ... ]
          = \ (x [Dmd=<S,1*U(U)>] :: Int) ->
              case x of { I# x1 -> I# (+# (*# x1 (*# x1 x1)) 1#) }
        [ ... ]
          = \ (x [Dmd=<S,1*U(U)>] :: Int) ->
              case x of { I# x -> I# (+# (*# (*# x x) x) 1#) }

1 out of 1 tests failed (0.01s)
typeclass-blogpost> Test suite inspection-tests failed

In this way, the correct inlining of power' can be checked automatically after each change to the codebase!


This was a brief introduction to staged programming in Haskell, leveraging the type (and typeclass) system as a lightweight alternative to Template Haskell. The technique detailed in this article has been implemented in real-world contexts to create variadic functions like printf, and I hope that you will find many other useful applications for it!

I would like to give a special thank you to Arnaud Spiwack who both taught me this technique in the first place, and then helped me to greatly improve this blog post.

  1. In short, this is because GHC can’t distinguish between the base and recursive instances with Nats as easily as it can with Peanos
  2. Core is the main intermediate language used inside GHC.
  3. In my case, the full path was: .stack-work/dist/x86_64-linux-nix/Cabal-
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