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20 December 2022 — by The Nickel Team
Announcing Nickel 0.3.1
nickel

The Nickel team is delighted to announce a new version of Nickel, 0.3.1. Nickel is a programming language that helps people write configurations that are modular, correct and boilerplate-free.

If you haven’t tried Nickel for yourself, you can learn how to get started on the website.

What’s in Nickel 0.3

LSP record & standard library completion

The Nickel language server (nls) now supports autocompletion for the Nickel standard library, as well as for the fields of user-defined records.

This significantly improves the experience of writing complex configurations in any editor with LSP support. It also increases discoverability of existing standard library contracts and functions, as simply typing record. or array. will now show a list of all exported fields.

Priority metadata annotations for record merging

You can now express the priority of record fields precisely in metadata to get more fine-grained control over the results of record merging.

let sleep_config = {
  sleep_timer | default = 5000,
  requires_password_on_sleep = false,
} in
let my_config = {
  sleep_timer = 6000,
  requires_password_on_sleep | force = true,
} in

my_config & sleep_config
# evaluates to: { sleep_timer = 6000, requires_password_on_sleep = true }

In addition to default (the lowest priority) and force (the highest), there is also a priority keyword, which must be followed by a number.

{ x | priority 10 = "a" } & { x | priority 20 = "b" }
# evaluates to: { x = "b" }

Finally, it is also possible to recursively “push” priorities down into a record. For example:

let default_config = {
  sleep | rec default = {
    timer = 5000,
    requires_password = false
  }
} in

let my_config = { sleep.timer = 6000 } in

default_config & my_config
# evaluates to: { sleep = { timer = 6000, requires_password = false } }

You can read more about priority metadata annotations in the relevant documentation. Note that the exact behaviour of this functionality is not yet stable, so be aware that the above examples may change in future versions of Nickel.

optional metadata

A new optional metadata keyword has been added, which makes it possible to express, for example, that certain fields may not be present in a record contract.

let ConfigLang = { name | Str, evaluation | optional | [| `Lazy, `Strict |] } in

let langs | Array ConfigLang = [
  { name = "Nickel", evaluation = `Lazy },
  { name = "Starlark", evaluation = `Strict },
  { name = "YAML" },
] in

langs

switch is now match

Nickel’s switch statement has been renamed to match.

This has also come with a subtle change in behaviour: a match is now a function with an anonymous argument. This is perhaps best explained with an example:

let state_to_str : [| `Open, `Closed |] -> Str =
  match {
    `Open => "open",
    `Closed => "closed",
  }
in

state_to_str `Open
# evaluates to: "open"

Combined with the |> operator for reversing the order of function application, this change also makes it possible to move the value that’s being matched on to the front of the expression. This can make it more obvious what’s being matched on:

let Door = { house_number | num.Nat, door_state | [| `Open, `Closed |] } in

let is_open | Door -> Bool =
  fun door =>
    door.state |> match {
      `Open => true,
      _ => false,
    }
in

is_open { house_number = 4, state = `Closed }
# evaluates to: false

Other changes

There are other changes in Nickel 0.3.1, including:

  • Enum case names can now overlap with language keywords. Previously cases like `if would fail with a parsing error.
  • Enum case names can no longer contain whitespace between the backtick and the identifier.
  • It is no longer possible to use multiline strings in enum identifiers.
  • Various bug fixes & performance improvements.
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