Technical groups
Dropdown arrow
Open source
Consulting services
Technical groups
Dropdown arrow
Open source
Consulting services

Linear Constraints: the problem with O(1) freeze

26 January 2023 — by Arnaud Spiwack

This is the first of two companion blog posts to the paper Linearly Qualified Types, published at ICFP 2021 (there is also a long version, with appendices). These blog posts will dive into some subjects that were touched, but not elaborated on, in the paper. For more introductory content, you may be interested in my talk at ICFP.

  1. The problem with O(1) freeze
  2. The problem with scopes

In 2018, Simon Peyton Jones was giving a Haskell Exchange’s keynote on linear types in Haskell (there is also a version of the talk on Youtube, but the audio desyncs after a while). Roman Leshchinskiy, author of the remarkable vector package, was sitting next to me. Simon Peyton Jones was describing how linear types allowed for mutable arrays with a pure interface. Roman Leshchinskiy asked, “What about mutable arrays of mutable arrays?” (timestamp: 22min) My answer was, “It’s harder.”

This blog post is me finally explaining this in more detail. In fact, this mutable-array-of-mutable-array issue was what caused the inception of the work on linear constraints.

Mutable arrays with ST

The traditional API for mutable arrays, in Haskell, looks like this:

new :: Int -> a -> ST s (MArray s a)
read :: MArray s a -> Int -> ST s a
write :: MArray s a -> Int -> a -> ST s ()
unsafeFreeze :: MArray s a -> ST s (Array a)

It uses the ST monad for sequencing to represent mutation. The unsafeFreeze function is crucial: this is how we make immutable arrays. To build an immutable array, first make a mutable array, set the values in each cell to the desired value, then freeze (and runST). Up to some low-level considerations, this is how Haskell’s array is implemented:

array :: Int -> [(Int, a)] -> Array a
array n assocs = runST $ do
  buffer <- newArray n undefined
  forM_ assocs $ \(i,a) ->
    write buffer i a
  unsafeFreeze buffer

However, after using unsafeFreeze you must not mutate the array ever again. If you keep a pointer to the MArray and modify it, then you will, in fact, modify the “frozen” immutable array as well.

runST $ do
  -- A mutable array full of zeros
  marr <- newArray 42 0
  -- Freeze into a immutable array
  arr <- freeze marr
  let x = arr!0
  -- But write into the array again!
  writeArray marr 0 57
  -- False. Or sometimes True. Depending on whether x has been
  -- inlined. Haskell is very angry at you.
  return $ x == arr!0

This is why the function is called unsafe. It would be quite possible to make a safe freeze function: simply make a copy of the array. Now there doesn’t exist an MArray pointer to the Array and we are safe, but the cost is that freezing is no longer constant time. This is a cost we are typically not willing to pay.

Pure mutable arrays with linear types

Linear types offer a solution to this problem: a safe constant-time freeze. In addition to making the whole interface pure, it gets rid of the ST monad. It looks something like this:

new :: Int -> a -> (MArray a %1 -> Ur b) %1 -> Ur b
read :: MArray a %1 -> Int -> (MArray a, Ur a)
write :: MArray a %1 -> Int -> a -> MArray a
freeze :: MArray a %1 -> Ur (Array a)

The idea is that there is always a single pointer to a given MArray, this way we can safely mutate the array: nobody can look at past versions of the array, so they can’t observe that the array has, in fact, changed. This is also why freeze is both safe and runs in constant time: it simply returns a pointer to the same array, consuming the (unique) pointer of type MArray in the process, so we can’t mutate the array anymore.

Notice that freeze returns an Ur (Array a). Ur stands for “unrestricted”, which means that the Array a doesn’t have to be used linearly (if you are familiar with linear logic, Ur a corresponds to !A). In the case of freeze, it means that the returned Array is not subject to the linearity discipline.

The way we arrange for there to always be a single pointer to the MArray is that it is only ever consumed by linear functions. The key is the new function. This is why it takes a continuation as an argument. I call this argument a scope function because it scopes where the array can be used. The scope function returns an Ur b so that the array doesn’t escape its scope: an MArray is never unrestricted, in particular there is no value of type Ur (MArray a). Scope functions, and how to improve on them, are the subject of my next blog post.

As read and write make apparent, an MArray cannot contain linear data, only unrestricted data. The reason for this is freeze: we want to simply return the same pointer with a different type, but by virtue of the returned Array being unrestricted, we cannot guarantee that the values stored in the cells will be used linearly. For instance, we may decide not to use the Array at all, in particular not to use the cells’ content.

But an MArray is always a linear value, therefore, we can’t make an MArray (MArray a). Another way to think about this is that if I’m freezing an MArray (MArray a), what we want to get is an Array (Array a). That is, not only do we need to change the outer type, we need to change the type of cells as well. One way would be to map freeze over the cells, then freeze the result. This process no longer runs in constant time. The same problem exists in the ST implementation, but there it is at least possible to make an MArray s (MArray s a), while retaining a constant-time freeze in the shallow case.

This API was what Simon Peyton Jones was presenting at Haskell 2018. It’s also the API from the Linear Haskell paper (long version with appendices), and, in fact, the API currently in linear-base.

It’s harder

If we are to make mutable arrays of mutable arrays possible while retaining a constant-time freeze, we will have to look for another strategy.

Let’s turn to Rust for a moment. A freeze function in Rust would look like:

fn freeze<T>(v: Vec<T>) -> Rc<Vec<T>> {

Freezing is the most natural thing in an ownership system like Rust’s: freezing is relinquishing ownership. What matters to us is that you can freeze a Vec<Vec<T>> or a Vec<Vec<Vec<T>>> and everything will have become recursively immutable. A key reason why Rust can pull this off at all is that mutable vectors and immutable vectors have the same type. Immutability can be signified, instead, by adding an Rc prefix.

If we are to make freeze not change the type of arrays, we can’t have an invariant like “An MArray is only ever consumed by linear functions”. We need a change of perspective. What if, instead of the array being linear, we had a token that gives us permission to write to and read from the array?

An API function would look like this:

write :: RW %1 -> Array a -> Int -> a -> RW

The Array argument doesn’t need to be linear anymore: only the RW token is (and only the RW needs to be returned). This is not quite right though: there is no connection between the RW token and the Array. We could use the RW token for another, frozen, array on which we only have read permission. To link the two we introduce an extra argument n, serving as a type-level name of the array. We can then have:

write :: RW n %1 -> Array a n -> Int -> a -> RW n

Now, the RW token is what ensures proper sequencing of reads and writes. What have we gained? Well, we can make the RW token scope over the entire Array. That is, the Array a n contains mutable data, whose permissions to read from or write to is controlled by the RW n token for the outer array. Pulling all this together we can make the following API:

type Array :: (Name -> Type) -> Name -> Type

type RO :: Name -> Type
type RW :: Name -> Type

-- `newArray` creates an array initialised with `undefined` values.
newArray :: Int -> (forall n. RW n %1 -> Array a n -> Ur b) -> Ur b
-- `borrow` gives unrestricted read-only permission to the entire
-- array. You can read subarrays with `read`.
borrow :: RW n %1 -> Array a n -> (forall m. RO m -> Array a m -> b) -> (RW n, b)
read :: RO n -> Array a n -> Int -> a n
-- `borrowWriteAt` gives linear read-write permission to an inner
-- array. You can write at the current array with `write`, or access
-- a more inner array with nested `borrowWriteAt`.
borrowWriteAt :: RW n %1 -> Array a n -> Int -> (forall m. RW m %1 -> a m -> (RW m, b)) -> (RW n, b)
write :: RW n %1 -> RW m %1 -> Array a n -> Int -> a m -> RW n
freeze :: RW n %1 -> Array a n -> Ur (RO n)

-- `Ref` wraps regular values into permissionned values.
type Ref :: Type -> Name -> Type

newRef :: a -> (forall n. RW n %1 -> Ref a n -> Ur b)
-- `readRef` doesn't require permission because there is no
-- `writeRef`.
readRef :: Ref a n -> a

The type of Array cells is changed to be of type Name -> Type. This is used in write, for instance, where the name m of the array whose cell we write into vanishes, so that the outer RW n now scopes over the former a m as well. There is a new function, borrow, to allow scoped read-only access to the array (and its inner components). Now freeze simply consumes a RW token and returns an unrestricted RO token. That is all it does. Internally, a RW token and a RO token are trivial values, so freeze is constant-time. After freeze, the array and all the inner arrays are immutable, and reads are unrestricted, as we intended.

Having to carry these token around, however, is quite cumbersome, to say the least. I think we’d all take the absence of support for mutable arrays of mutable arrays rather than manually carrying a token around.

Linear constraints

The Linearly Qualified Types paper offers a solution to this conundrum in the form of linear constraints. The manipulation of the RW tokens is systematic enough, so our goal is to make the type checker deal with them itself.

A constraint, in Haskell, is whatever is to the left of a fat arrow =>. For instance, Show a, in show :: Show a => a -> String, is a constraint. A constraint is precisely what GHC’s type checker deals with itself: we want RW to be a constraint. But RW needs to be handled linearly, whereas constraints are typically unrestricted.

Linear constraints, as their name implies, bridge this gap by introducing a linear fat arrow %1 =>. Linear constraints are constraints which adhere to the linear type discipline. It does mean that using a given linear constraint C, for a function that wants it, makes C unavailable to other functions. So, just like we return RW tokens in the API above, we will need to return constraints.

To return a constraint we will use the type:

:: Constraint -> Type -> Type

The type can be implemented today as:

data ca where
  R :: c %1 => a %1 -> ca

From an ergonomic standpoint, this is a bit of a pain, as we need to explicitly construct and deconstruct c ⧀ a values with a data constructor, rather than returning a plain a. Fortunately, this is precisely the sort of issues that the existential types proposal will solve.

With linear constraints, we can turn the RW token into a constraint and the array API becomes:

type Array :: (Name -> Type) -> Name -> Type

type RO :: Name -> Constraint
type RW :: Name -> Constraint

newArray :: RW m %1 => Int -> (forall n. RW n %1 => Array a n -> Ur b) -> Ur b
borrow :: RW n %1 => Array a n -> (forall m. RO m => Array a m -> b) -> RW nb
read :: RO n => Array a n -> Int -> a n
borrowWriteAt :: RW n %1 => Array a n -> Int -> (forall m. RW m %1 => a m -> RW mb) -> RW nb
write :: (RW n, RW m) %1 => Array a n -> Int -> a m -> RW n()
freeze :: RW n %1 => Array a n -> Ur (RO n)()

(Note that we’ve overloaded Ur, here, to also hold unrestricted constraints.)


One of the reasons why I got interested in making linear constraints a thing in the first place was this problem of O(1)O(1) recursive freeze. The token-passing API solves the issue in theory, but I don’t think that it’s pleasant enough to use in practice.

While there is definitely room for mutable data structures which only hold unrestricted data, the story wouldn’t quite be complete without nested mutable data structures. At the end of the day, all linear constraints do for us is let the type-checker push tokens around. This turns out to be a powerful idea.

About the author

Arnaud Spiwack

Arnaud is Tweag's head of R&D. He described himself as a multi-classed Software Engineer/Constructive Mathematician. He can regularly be seen in the Paris office, but he doesn't live in Paris as he much prefers the calm and fresh air of his suburban town.

If you enjoyed this article, you might be interested in joining the Tweag team.

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.


AboutOpen SourceCareersContact Us

Connect with us

© 2024 Modus Create, LLC

Privacy PolicySitemap