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31 July 2020 — by Eelco Dolstra
Nix Flakes, Part 3: Managing NixOS systems

This is the third in a series of blog posts about Nix flakes. The first part motivated why we developed flakes — to improve Nix’s reproducibility, composability and usability — and gave a short tutorial on how to use flakes. The second part showed how flakes enable reliable caching of Nix evaluation results. In this post, we show how flakes can be used to manage NixOS systems in a reproducible and composable way.

What problems are we trying to solve?

Lack of reproducibility

One of the main selling points of NixOS is reproducibility: given a specification of a system, if you run nixos-rebuild to deploy it, you should always get the same actual system (modulo mutable state such as the contents of databases). For instance, we should be able to reproduce in a production environment the exact same configuration that we’ve previously validated in a test environment.

However, the default NixOS workflow doesn’t provide reproducible system configurations out of the box. Consider a typical sequence of commands to upgrade a NixOS system:

  • You edit /etc/nixos/configuration.nix.
  • You run nix-channel --update to get the latest version of the nixpkgs repository (which contains the NixOS sources).
  • You run nixos-rebuild switch, which evaluates and builds a function in the nixpkgs repository that takes /etc/nixos/configuration.nix as an input.

In this workflow, /etc/nixos/configuration.nix might not be under configuration management (e.g. point to a Git repository), or if it is, it might be a dirty working tree. Furthermore, configuration.nix doesn’t specify what Git revision of nixpkgs to use; so if somebody else deploys the same configuration.nix, they might get a very different result.

Lack of traceability

The ability to reproduce a configuration is not very useful if you can’t tell what configuration you’re actually running. That is, from a running system, you should be able to get back to its specification. So there is a lack of traceability: the ability to trace derived artifacts back to their sources. This is an essential property of good configuration management, since without it, we don’t know what we’re actually running in production, so reproducing or fixing problems becomes much harder.

NixOS currently doesn’t not have very good traceability. You can ask a NixOS system what version of Nixpkgs it was built from:

$ nixos-version --json | jq -r .nixpkgsRevision

Unfortunately, this doesn’t allow you to recover configuration.nix or any other external NixOS modules that were used by the configuration.

Lack of composability

It’s easy to enable a package or system service in a NixOS configuration if it is part of the nixpkgs repository: you just add a line like environment.systemPackages = [ pkgs.hello ]; or services.postgresql.enable = true; to your configuration.nix. But what if we want to use a package or service that isn’t part of Nixpkgs? Then we’re forced to use mechanisms like $NIX_PATH, builtins.fetchGit, imports using relative paths, and so on. These are not standardized (since everybody uses different conventions) and are inconvenient to use (for example, when using $NIX_PATH, it’s the user’s responsibility to put external repositories in the right directories).

Put another way: NixOS is currently built around a monorepo workflow — the entire universe should be added to the nixpkgs repository, because anything that isn’t, is much harder to use.

It’s worth noting that any NixOS system configuration already violates the monorepo assumption: your system’s configuration.nix is not part of the nixpkgs repository.

Using flakes for NixOS configurations

In the previous post, we saw that flakes are (typically) Git repositories that have a file named flake.nix, providing a standardized interface to Nix artifacts. We saw flakes that provide packages and development environments; now we’ll use them to provide NixOS system configurations. This solves the problems described above:

  • Reproducibility: the entire system configuration (including everything it depends on) is captured by the flake and its lock file. So if two people check out the same Git revision of a flake and build it, they should get the same result.
  • Traceability: nixos-version prints the Git revision of the top-level configuration flake, not its nixpkgs input.
  • Composability: it’s easy to pull in packages and modules from other repositories as flake inputs.


Flake support has been added as an experimental feature to NixOS 20.03. However, flake support is not part of the current stable release of Nix (2.3). So to get a NixOS system that supports flakes, you first need to switch to the nixUnstable package and enable some experimental features. This can be done by adding the following to configuration.nix:

nix.package = pkgs.nixUnstable;
nix.extraOptions = ''
  experimental-features = nix-command flakes

Creating a NixOS configuration flake

Let’s create a flake that contains the configuration for a NixOS container.

$ git init my-flake
$ cd my-flake
$ nix flake init -t templates#simpleContainer
$ git commit -a -m 'Initial version'

Note that the -t flag to nix flake init specifies a template from which to copy the initial contents of the flake. This is useful for getting started. To see what templates are available, you can run:

$ nix flake show templates

For reference, this is what the initial flake.nix looks like:

  inputs.nixpkgs.url = "github:NixOS/nixpkgs/nixos-20.03";

  outputs = { self, nixpkgs }: {

    nixosConfigurations.container = nixpkgs.lib.nixosSystem {
      system = "x86_64-linux";
      modules =
        [ ({ pkgs, ... }: {
            boot.isContainer = true;

            # Let 'nixos-version --json' know about the Git revision
            # of this flake.
            system.configurationRevision = nixpkgs.lib.mkIf (self ? rev) self.rev;

            # Network configuration.
            networking.useDHCP = false;
            networking.firewall.allowedTCPPorts = [ 80 ];

            # Enable a web server.
            services.httpd = {
              enable = true;
              adminAddr = "[email protected]";


That is, the flake has one input, namely nixpkgs - specifically the 20.03 branch. It has one output, nixosConfigurations.container, which evaluates a NixOS configuration for tools like nixos-rebuild and nixos-container. The main argument is modules, which is a list of NixOS configuration modules. This takes the place of the file configuration.nix in non-flake deployments. (In fact, you can write modules = [ ./configuration.nix ] if you’re converting a pre-flake NixOS configuration.)

Let’s create and start the container! (Note that nixos-container currently requires you to be root.)

# nixos-container create flake-test --flake /path/to/my-flake
host IP is, container IP is

# nixos-container start flake-test

To check whether the container works, let’s try to connect to it:

$ curl http://flake-test/
<html><body><h1>It works!</h1></body></html>

As an aside, if you just want to build the container without the nixos-container command, you can do so as follows:

$ nix build /path/to/

Note that is an internal NixOS option that evaluates to the “system” derivation that commands like nixos-rebuild, nixos-install and nixos-container build and activate. The symlink /run/current-system points to the output of this derivation.

Hermetic evaluation

One big difference between “regular” NixOS systems and flake-based NixOS systems is that the latter record the Git revisions from which they were built. We can query this as follows:

# nixos-container run flake-test -- nixos-version --json

Here, configurationRevision is the Git revision of the repository /path/to/my-flake. Because evaluation is hermetic, and the lock file locks all flake inputs such as nixpkgs, knowing the revision 9190c39… allows you to completely reconstruct this configuration at a later point in time. For example, if you want to deploy this particular configuration to a container, you can do:

# nixos-container update flake-test \
    --flake /path/to/my-flake?rev=9190c396f4dcfc734e554768c53a81d1c231c6a7

Dirty configurations

It’s not required that you commit all changes to a configuration before deploying it. For example, if you change the adminAddr line in flake.nix to

adminAddr = "[email protected]";

and redeploy the container, you will get:

# nixos-container update flake-test
warning: Git tree '/path/to/my-flake' is dirty
reloading container...

and the container will no longer have a configuration Git revision:

# nixos-container run flake-test -- nixos-version --json | jq .configurationRevision

While this may be convenient for testing, in production we really want to ensure that systems are deployed from clean Git trees. One way is to disallow dirty trees on the command line:

# nixos-container update flake-test --no-allow-dirty
error: --- Error -------------------- nix
Git tree '/path/to/my-flake' is dirty

Another is to require a clean Git tree in flake.nix, for instance by adding a check to the definition of system.configurationRevision:

system.configurationRevision =
  if self ? rev
  then self.rev
  else throw "Refusing to build from a dirty Git tree!";

Adding modules from third-party flakes

One of the main goals of flake-based NixOS is to make it easier to use packages and modules that are not included in the nixpkgs repository. As an example, we’ll add Hydra (a continuous integration server) to our container.

Here’s how we add it to our container. We specify it as an additional input:

  inputs.hydra.url = "github:NixOS/hydra";

and as a corresponding function argument to the outputs function:

  outputs = { self, nixpkgs, hydra }: {

Finally, we enable the NixOS module provided by the hydra flake:

      modules =
        [ hydra.nixosModules.hydraTest

          ({ pkgs, ... }: {
            ... our own configuration ...

            # Hydra runs on port 3000 by default, so open it in the firewall.
            networking.firewall.allowedTCPPorts = [ 3000 ];

Note that we can discover the name of this module by using nix flake show:

$ nix flake show github:NixOS/hydra
│   ├───hydra: NixOS module
│   ├───hydraProxy: NixOS module
│   └───hydraTest: NixOS module
└───overlay: Nixpkgs overlay

After committing this change and running nixos-container update, we can check whether hydra is working in the container by visiting http://flake-test:3000/ in a web browser.

Working with lock files

There are a few command line flags accepted by nix, nixos-rebuild and nixos-container that make updating lock file more convenient. A very common action is to update a flake input to the latest version; for example,

$ nixos-container update flake-test --update-input nixpkgs --commit-lock-file

updates the nixpkgs input to the latest revision on the nixos-20.03 branch, and commits the new lock file with a commit message that records the input change.

A useful flag during development is --override-input, which allows you to point a flake input to another location, completely overriding the input location specified by flake.nix. For example, this is how you can build the container against a local Git checkout of Hydra:

$ nixos-container update flake-test --override-input hydra /path/to/my/hydra

Adding overlays from third-party flakes

Similarly, we can add Nixpkgs overlays from other flakes. (Nixpkgs overlays add or override packages in the pkgs set.) For example, here is how you add the overlay provided by the nix flake:

  outputs = { self, nixpkgs, nix }: {
    nixosConfigurations.container = nixpkgs.lib.nixosSystem {
      modules =
          ({ pkgs, ... }: {
            nixpkgs.overlays = [ nix.overlay ];

Using nixos-rebuild

Above we saw how to manage NixOS containers using flakes. Managing “real” NixOS systems works much the same, except using nixos-rebuild instead of nixos-container. For example,

# nixos-rebuild switch --flake /path/to/my-flake#my-machine

builds and activates the configuration specified by the flake output If you omit the name of the configuration (#my-machine), nixos-rebuild defaults to using the current host name.

Pinning Nixpkgs

It’s often convenient to pin the nixpkgs flake to the exact version of nixpkgs used to build the system. This ensures that commands like nix shell nixpkgs#<package> work more efficiently since many or all of the dependencies of <package> will already be present. Here is a bit of NixOS configuration that pins nixpkgs in the system-wide flake registry:

nix.registry.nixpkgs.flake = nixpkgs;

Note that this only affects commands that reference nixpkgs without further qualifiers; more specific flake references like nixpkgs/nixos-20.03 or nixpkgs/348503b6345947082ff8be933dda7ebeddbb2762 are unaffected.


In this blog post we saw how Nix flakes make NixOS configurations hermetic and reproducible. In a future post, we’ll show how we can do the same for cloud deployments using NixOps.

Acknowledgment: The development of flakes was partially funded by Target Corporation.

Nix Flakes Series

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
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