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17 November 2021 — by Noah Goodman
Safe Sparkle: a resource-safe interface with linear types
internshiplinear-typesinline-javadata-science

During my internship at Tweag, I worked on creating a safe interface for the sparkle library under the excellent mentorship of Facundo Domínguez. sparkle is a Haskell library that provides bindings for Apache Spark using inline-java’s Java interop capabilities. As such, this new safe interface accomplishes the same thing that inline-java’s safe interface does; it helps to ensure safe management of Java references at compile-time using linear types.

As discussed in this earlier post, we need to be careful to free Java references provided by inline-java when they’re done being used, and we also shouldn’t use them after they’ve been freed. Since sparkle manipulates references to Java objects defined in the Spark Java library, any potential users must take care to safely manage references when using sparkle as well. Hence, the goal of creating a safe interface for sparkle was clear: ensure that users manage references to Spark objects safely, using linear types. However, actually designing a safe interface that achieved this goal in the best way possible involved a couple of non-obvious design decisions along the way.

In this post, I will discuss some of the more important design choices I made, both as a way to introduce people to the new safe interface for sparkle, and possibly, as a more general guideline for things to consider when designing a library that achieves safe resource management in a linear monad.

Porting Strategy

The first design decision I had to make, although not a user-facing one, was how I wanted to port the unsafe sparkle library over to a safe version. For the most part, the jvm and jni libraries (on top of which both inline-java and sparkle are built) structure their safe interfaces as wrappers around the corresponding unsafe ones. That is, a typical function defined in one of these libraries will involve some unwrapping of data types, followed by an unsafe call to the underlying unsafe function of interest, plus maybe some extra reference management. For example, the getArrayLength function in the safe version of jni is essentially a wrapper around the original implementation in the unsafe version:

getArrayLength :: MonadIO m => JArray a %1-> m (JArray a, Ur Int32)
getArrayLength = Unsafe.toLinear $ \o ->
    liftPreludeIO ((,) o . Ur <$> JNI.getArrayLength (unJ o))

In this case, the library writer was careful to check that the “unsafe” version of getArrayLength was actually safe and didn’t delete or modify the original array o that was passed in, justifying a call to Unsafe.toLinear. And indeed, there’s not much of a choice here but to use Unsafe.toLinear. The actual implementation of getArrayLength involves a call to inline-c, for which there is no linearly-typed safe interface.

In the case of sparkle, however, there was another option: reimplement all the functionality in the safe interface using the safe interfaces from inline-java, jvm, and jni. Since sparkle is primarily built on top of these libraries, we no longer run into the problem of primitives whose implementation is inherently unsafe/nonlinear. The main benefits of this approach are that the new implementations are more likely to be safe, as they’re built from safe building blocks (whereas using Unsafe.toLinear requires us to be very careful each time we use it) and that many of sparkle’s bindings work out of the box when we switch the underlying libraries. The main downsides are that there is more code repetition between the safe and unsafe interfaces and that some functions may be more complicated to implement if we limit ourselves to only using linear types. For example, we may need to use folds instead of maps in order to thread some shared, immutable linear resource across a sequence of actions.

In the end, I went for the latter approach, as it guarantees more safety in the implementation itself (the entire safe interface uses Unsafe.toLinear only once), and the process of adapting pre-existing code to work with the safe interfaces for inline-java, jvm, and jni turned out to be pretty straightforward in most cases.

When to delete references?

The second major design point I had to address when designing the safe interface was that of when references would be deleted. In any interface that deals with the safe management of some resource, there must necessarily be some place where the resource is ultimately consumed (or freed, or deleted). Technically speaking, if we have some value bound in linear IO, let’s say a reference to a Spark RDD:

Linear.do
  ...
  rdd <- parallelize sc [1,2,3,4]
  ...

Then at some point, we need to pass rdd to exactly one function that consumes it linearly. Let’s say we want to filter the elements in our RDD. Then filter should consume rdd linearly. The Spark filter function also returns an RDD, so we would probably assign filter a type signature as follows:

filter :: (Static (Reify a), Typeable a) => Closure (a -> Bool) -> RDD a %1 -> Linear.IO (RDD a)

Ignoring the complexities with distributed closures, this just says that filter takes a filtering function, consumes a reference to an RDD linearly, then returns a reference to that RDD with the filter transformation applied. RDDs are immutable, so the returned reference refers to a different Java object than rdd did, but this means that we might reasonably still want to do something with the original RDD referred to by rdd! We could manually create another reference to rdd before calling filter:

   (rdd0, rdd1) <- newLocalRef rdd
   filteredRDD <- filter (static (closure (> 3))) rdd0

But we might also be equally as justified in making the type signature of filter as follows, instead:

filter :: (Static (Reify a), Typeable a) => Closure (a -> Bool) -> RDD a %1 -> Linear.IO (RDD a, RDD a)

In this case we return a reference to the input RDD, as well as a reference to the new, filtered one. The only problem here is that sometimes we might not need the reference to the original RDD anymore, in which case we would have to manually delete it:

   (oldRDD, filteredRDD) <- filter (static (closure (> 3))) rdd
   deleteLocalRef oldRDD

So what’s the right type signature for filter? Both of these possible signatures are equally expressive, so we need to determine which option is better in practice.

Ultimately, the answer is somewhat subjective and will likely vary based on resource usage patterns, but I largely opted for the first option (in which we do not return a copy of the original reference) in designing the safe interface for sparkle. My reasons for choosing this approach are that it allows for better composition, compatibility with the unsafe interface, compatibility with inline-java, and practical ease of use.

Composability

Deleting input references by default allows sparkle functions to compose more easily. For example, imagine that we wish to define a function that takes an RDD of words and tells us how many of them are palindromes. If we adopt the convention that sparkle functions always return a reference to the input RDD, then this function would look something like this:

countPalindromes :: RDD Text %1 -> IO (RDD Text, Ur Int64)
countPalindromes rdd =
  filter (static (closure isPalindrome)) rdd >>= \(oldRDD, newRDD) ->
    count newRDD >>= \(newRDD', res) ->
      deleteLocalRef newRDD' >>
        pure (oldRDD, res)

Here, we have countPalindromes return the input RDD in keeping with the chosen convention. Using the other convention, however, our function would look like this:

countPalindromes :: RDD Text %1 -> IO (Ur Int64)
countPalindromes rdd = filter (static (closure isPalindrome)) rdd >>= count

As we can see, not having to wrap and unwrap tuples in the output of functions allows for more seamless composition.

Compatibility

Additionally, this approach does not fundamentally alter the return type of any functions, so they can be used in much the same way as their unsafe counterparts (which makes porting unsafe code to the safe interface easier). Similarly, our chosen convention is the same one that safe inline-java uses in its quasi-quotations, so many sparkle functions behave exactly as one would expect their inline-java-implemented analogs to behave. For example, subtract can be defined as nothing more than a wrapper around the corresponding inline-java quasiquotation:

subtract :: RDD a %1 -> RDD a %1 -> IO (RDD a)
subtract rdd1 rdd2 = [java| $rdd1.subtract($rdd2) |]

Usage patterns

Finally, this option fits better with common usage patterns in Spark. A resource like a file handle, which the user typically needs to use repeatedly, probably should be returned from every function that consumes it. But in Spark, pipelines of transformations and actions on a single entity (RDD, Dataset, etc.) are fairly common (take the countPalindromes function above as a minimal example). That is, it is not generally the case that one needs an older reference after doing something with it, so it seems a bit cleaner to create a few extra references when you need them than to have to clean up unused references.

Note that the above applies only to references to immutable Spark objects. While all functions that deal with immutable objects follow this convention, I dealt with functions taking references to mutable objects on a more case by case basis. For example, if we perform an action that mutates a mutable object, we would typically want to use the object for something else afterwards (e.g. setting a field in a configuration object before initializing a process with that configuration) so it makes sense to return a reference to that object.

Unrestricted Values

In discussing what to return from functions, it’s also worth briefly mentioning what happens when a function returns something other than a reference to a Java object. In this case, the function would just return a normal Haskell value, and while everything may be embedded in linear IO, we don’t care about managing Haskell values in a linear fashion whatsoever, so I adopted the convention of wrapping all returned Haskell values in Ur, signifying that these values are unrestricted and may be used any number of times (including none at all). While it’s certainly possible to return Haskell values that aren’t wrapped in Ur, doing so would be needlessly limiting (see the section “Escaping Linearity” in this post). Note that this is also the convention suggested by the safe reify_ function from jvm:

reify_ :: (Reify a, MonadIO m) => J (Interp a) %1-> m (Ur a)

Global References

Finally, one of the trickiest points involved in porting sparkle over to a safe interface was the issue of global references.

In some cases, sparkle deals with objects that are “global” in some sense. For example the static, final BooleanType field from the Spark DataTypes class is global in the sense that any reference to this field will refer to the same piece of memory in the JVM, and the value of this object will never change. For an entity like this one, it seems a bit unnecessary to have to keep track of a bunch of local reference to it if it’s always the same. It would be simpler to just have some kind of global reference that we could always use to refer to this object. Ideally, we would engineer this so that we would be able to avoid unnecessary copying of local references and unnecessary JNI calls from the Haskell side each time we want to do something with this object.

At first, simply using global references as defined in jni seems like the most straightforward solution; however, a mere coercion doesn’t work when we want to pass global references to safe Spark functions.

As it stands, Spark objects are represented in safe sparkle as wrappers around safe local references. For example:

newtype DataType = DataType (J ('Class "org.apache.spark.sql.types.DataType"))

And safe local references are themselves just wrappers around unsafe references:

newtype J (a :: JType) = J (Unsafe.J a)

A global reference has the same type as a local reference, and many functions from jni can work on both kinds of references. But unfortunately, there are different calls to delete each of them. We have deleteLocalRef and deleteGlobalRef, and the user shall not apply the wrong call for a reference or undefined behavior ensues.

Suppose we want to pass a global reference to a function that takes a DataType. We could try to disguise our unsafe global reference as follows:

-- global reference to `BooleanType`
booleanTypeRef :: Unsafe.J ('Class "org.apache.spark.sql.types.DataType")

-- Takes a safe reference to a DataType and deletes it after using, as is the convention
safeSparkFunction :: DataType %1 -> IO ()

someFunc' = Linear.do
  disguisedRef <- pure $ DataType (Safe.J booleanTypeRef) -- disguise unsafe global ref as safe local ref
  safeSparkFunction disguisedRef                          -- RUNTIME ERROR or UNDEFINED BEHAVIOR

In this case, safeSparkFunction consumes its argument linearly, meaning that it will delete any reference passed in, and we would get an error since inline-java would use deleteLocalRef, which is invalid to call on a global reference. Moreover, nothing prevents the library user from using booleanTypeRef after it has been deleted!

So as it stands, there’s not really a good way to pass a global reference into a safe function taking a DataType, suggesting that perhaps the definition of DataType is actually what needs to change. There’s no way to wrap an unsafe global reference into a DataType without covering up the fact that this reference is global. Ideally, the global reference would be kept valid for as long as it is needed by the program. It may be possible to change the internals of the safe jni, jvm, and inline-java (in particular by making the safe J type into a union type) to allow safe sparkle functions to take either global or local references as arguments safely.

Overall, while the aforementioned potential changes are likely the most optimal solution, I made the simpler, yet still workable compromise of just using safe local references anywhere where a global reference might be preferable. The main downsides of this approach are that the user may have to do some extra manual reference management with these references where it is not strictly necessary, and we also lose a few performance optimizations that come from global references (such as avoiding unnecessary copying or JNI calls). But the major advantage of this solution is that it is simple for the user, as they will not have to worry about whether or not a given reference is local or global (while any solution involving global references would seek to minimize the degree to which the user needs to care about this, the distinction is sure to surface somewhere). By treating all references as safe local references, reference management becomes uniform across the entirety of the interface, at the cost of some extra verbosity and minor performance hits.

Closing remarks

We have now seen some of the problems involved when it comes to designing a library that enforces safe reference management in linear IO. We went through a case-study for linear types in Haskell and the safe interface of inline-java, and I hope that it can serve as a motivation for understanding the importance of thinking carefully about compatibility and ease-of-use when designing safe resource-management libraries that use linear types. Indeed, these two factors will play a large role in the future adoption of linear types in Haskell, and understanding the relevant design choices will be essential in scaling the safe resource-management library ecosystem.

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
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